Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco Make Historic Acquisition of 62 Works of African American Art from the Souls Grown Deep Foundation
Thornton Dial, "Lost Cows", 2000-2001. Cow skeletons, steel, golf bag, golf ball, mirrors, enamel, and Splash Zone compound, 76.5 x 91 x 52 in. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, museum purchase, American Art Trust Fund, and gift of the Souls Grown Deep Foundation from the William S. Arnett Collection. Artwork © Estate of Thornton Dial / Artists Rights Society (ARS), NY. Photo Stephen PitkinPitkin Studio, Rockford, IL / Art Resource, NY.
Acquisition includes major works by Thornton Dial, Lonnie Holley, and Ronald Lockett,
and will significantly enhance the spectrum of scholarship on American art
All works to be presented in, Revelations: Art from the African American South,
at the de Young from June 3, 2017 through April 1, 2018
SAN FRANCISCO — Max Hollein, Director and CEO of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, announced today that 62 works by contemporary African American artists from the Southern United States have been acquired by the Museums from the Souls Grown Deep Foundation in Atlanta. This major acquisition from the Foundation’s William S. Arnett Collection was achieved through a purchase by the Fine Arts Museums and a gift from the Foundation.
“The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco house one of the nation’s greatest 350-year survey collections of American art, with the renowned Rockefeller Collection as its cornerstone,” says Hollein. “Accordingly, we feel a special responsibility to take the lead in expanding the representation of artists who reflect the historical diversity of American culture. This groundbreaking acquisition of contemporary art adds an integral—and exceptional—chapter to our signature collection of American art.”
Included in the current acquisition are paintings, sculptures, drawings, and quilts by 22 acclaimed artists, including Thornton Dial, Ralph Griffin, Bessie Harvey, Lonnie Holley, Joe Light, Ronald Lockett, Joe Minter, Jessie T. Pettway, Mary T. Smith, Mose Tolliver, Annie Mae Young, and Purvis Young. The history of the partnership between the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco and the Souls Grown Deep Foundation dates back to 2006, when the Museums hosted the loan exhibition The Quilts of Gee’s Bend.
“Our collaboration with the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco on this historic acquisition is at the heart of our mission to make the work of these African American artists from the South accessible to the public and scholars alike,” noted Maxwell L. Anderson, President of the Souls Grown Deep Foundation. “As an advocate for these artists and their enduring legacies, our partnerships with major American museums are critical to ensuring that their contributions are woven into the greater narrative of art in America.”
In celebration, the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco will debut the entire acquisition in a special exhibition entitled Revelations: Art from the African American South, opening June 3, 2017, at the de Young.
“While all these compelling objects embody universal human values, they are also powerful testaments to African American cultural resilience and survival,” notes Timothy Anglin Burgard, the Curator-in-Charge of American Art. “Originally created as expressions of personal identity and communal solidarity in the South during the modern Civil Rights era, they will now serve as catalysts to transform global art history.”
The cultural origins of these artworks can be traced back to the African Diaspora, slavery, and the Jim Crow era of institutionalized racism, which prohibited both physical freedom and freedom of expression for African Americans. Despite these barriers, in the segregated and comparatively safe spaces of churches and cemeteries, as well as in the fields and forests, African Americans created a cultural language that led to the evolution of distinctly African American musical forms such as gospel, blues, jazz, and rock ‘n’ roll.
These rich musical traditions were paralleled by visual traditions that were often covert, symbolic, and metaphoric, in order to escape notice and censure. Working with little or no formal training, and often employing cast-off objects and unconventional materials, these artists have created visually compelling works that address some of the most profound and persistent issues in American society, including race, class, gender, and religion.
Only with the advent of the modern civil rights movement did these artists, visual traditions, and artworks fully emerge into public view, garnering new exhibition opportunities—and foundation, gallery, and collector support—as well as critical and popular acclaim. Rooted in the living history of the Jim Crow South but flourishing in the world of contemporary art, the works of these artists increasingly brought a unique perspective to bear on issues relevant to both the nation as a whole and the world at large.
Historically marginalized, patronized, or promoted with reductive terms such as folk, naive, or outsider, these artists have earned equal consideration in the history of American art. Put in the context of the larger American Art collection at the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, the works—which include some of the finest contemporary art created in the United States—have the potential to influence American cultural studies to more accurately reflect the nation’s historical diversity and complexity.
The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco will debut the entire acquisition of 62 objects in the special exhibition, Revelations: Art from the African American South, opening June 3, 2017 at the de Young. The objects will be installed in six galleries typically reserved for the permanent collection of American art, in symbolic recognition of their new role at the Fine Arts Museums. The exhibition will be curated by Timothy Anglin Burgard.
The introductory gallery will include a group of press photographs that document pivotal events in the Civil Rights movement, including the 1963 bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama; the 1964 murders of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner; and the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King in Memphis, Tennessee. The last gallery will include works representative of a pan-African sensibility in contemporary art, including: African American artist Robert Colescott’s A Taste of Gumbo (1990), which depicts a white woman sampling black food and culture; Ghanaian artist El Anatsui’s Hovor II (2004), which uses recycled aluminum bottle caps to comment on post-colonial economic and cultural exchange; and British artist Cornelia Parker’s Anti-Mass (2005), created from the timbers of an African American Southern Baptist church burned by arsonists.
A companion exhibition, drawn entirely from the recently acquired Paulson Fontaine Press Archive, will feature prints by Lonnie Holley, as well as quilters centered around Gee’s Bend, Alabama, including Louisiana Bendolph, Mary Lee Bendolph, Loretta Bennett, and Loretta Pettway.
Thornton Dial (1928—2016) | 9 works
Dial—whose life encompassed the institutionalized racism of Jim Crow, the modern civil rights movement, and the first African American president—is the most acclaimed artist represented in the collection. Dial began making art after losing his job as a steelworker in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1981. His ambitious artworks address a panoramic array of issues spanning from African American experience in the South to the events of 9/11 and America’s war in Iraq. His works have been included in solo exhibitions at the New Museum of Contemporary Art (1993); the American Folk Art Museum (1993); the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (2005); and the Indianapolis Museum of Art (2011), as well as numerous group exhibitions, including the Whitney Biennial (2000).
“Art is like a bright star up ahead in the darkness of the world. It can lead peoples through the darkness and help them from being afraid of the darkness. Art is a guide for every person who is looking for something.” –Thornton Dial
Dial’s sculpture Lost Cows (2000-1), created with painted skeletons of cows, ostensibly addresses the cycles of life and death that are critical to rural agrarian life. The abstracted skeleton behind the four white cows struggles to guide his wayward herd. As the title Lost Cows suggests, the sculpture critiques the supposedly superior white supremacists (represented by pelvic bones that resemble Ku Klux Klan masks) that created the Jim Crow system, while simultaneously becoming dependent upon—and “lost” without—African American nannies, servants, maids, cooks, drivers, and caddies (represented by a white golf bag).
Lonnie Holley (b. 1950) | 4 works
The 1979 death of Holley’s niece and nephew in a house fire led him to carve their tombstones, which marked the beginning of his career as an artist in Birmingham, Alabama. Holley combines the most pedestrian of recycled materials to create visual stories—often linking the past to the present—that are intended to teach and to inspire. His work has been included in solo exhibitions at the Birmingham Museum of Art (2003) and the Halsey Institute of Contemporary Art, College of Charleston (2015).
“My thing as an artist, I am not doing anything but still ringing that Liberty Bell, ding, ding, ding, on the shorelines of independence. Isn’t that beautiful? Can you hear the bell I’m ringing? And will you come running?” –Lonnie Holley
Holley’s assemblage Him and Her Hold the Root (1994), the artist’s most iconic and striking work, is comprised of a smaller “female” rocking chair that rests its “arm” upon a larger “male” chair, as if mirroring the supportive and stabilizing relationship of an absent female/male couple. Together, they support a large, anthropomorphic tree root with a “trunk” and “limbs” that recalls both family tree genealogies and the preservation of oral history and traditions through the generations. The composition clearly evokes elders remembering their roots, but more subtly suggests that a younger generation may forget—or ignore—it’s past.
Ronald Lockett (1965—1998) | 6 works
Lockett, the nephew of Thornton Dial, lived in Bessemer, Alabama, and inherited from his uncle and mentor a belief in the political and social power of art. His works, many fabricated from sheet-metal siding, focus on both timeless themes of life, death, and rebirth, as well as contemporary political and social issues, including nuclear destruction, domestic terrorism, civil rights, and the degradation of the environment. Lockett’s works—all created in the decade before his death at 32 from complications of HIV/AIDS—were recently featured in a major retrospective exhibition at the American Folk Art Museum (2016).
“I don’t think I’ll be here when I’m 60, so I want to prove to people that I can succeed in what my dream was.” –Ronald Lockett
Lockett’s sheet-metal assemblage England’s Rose (1997) was inspired by the death of Princess Diana, who was among the first public figures to physically embrace people living with HIV/AIDS. The vertical bars recall both the vertical fence of Buckingham Palace that was inundated with floral bouquets and the public’s perception that Diana was “imprisoned” by her role in the royal family. The gradual but inexorable descent of the rose bouquets from vivid life and light at the upper left into death and darkness at the lower right would have had special resonance for Lockett, who died the year after the work was completed.
Purvis Young (1943—2010) | 4 works
Young first turned to art while imprisoned as a teenager, when he began reading art books. Following his release in 1964, he was inspired by the example of the Black Arts movement, which advocated for politically engaged works that addressed African American experience. In the late 1960s Young’s Overtown Miami neighborhood rapidly declined into poverty and crime after the completion of Interstate 95 deprived the community of street traffic and consumers. Young sought sanctuary in the then-vacant “Goodbread Alley,” where he installed hundreds of mural paintings in an outdoor public gallery that documented both the harsh realities of life in Overtown, and his belief in divine intervention.
“In all the poverty, the crime, the pushin’ drugs, there is love. There is help. There is a change.” –Purvis Young
Young’s oil painting Talking to the System (ca. 1975), depicts three righteous young people, two of them with beatific halos, confronting four white and two black elders. The painting pays tribute to the essential role played by young African Americans—some of them martyred—in confronting systematic and institutionalized racism through the civil rights and black power movements of the 1960s and 1970s. At the same time, Young’s painting speaks to the perennial tension between older and younger generations, a dynamic that transcends race.
Ralph Griffin (1925—1992) | 4 works
Griffin began making art around 1978 and is best known for creating sculptures from driftwood branches and roots that he retrieved from “Poplar Root Branch” stream near his home in Girard, Georgia. He asserted, “There’s a miracle in that water, running across them logs since the flood of Noah.” Griffin prized roots that appeared to have great age and “deep feeling,” and responded intuitively to the shapes and subjects that they suggested, saying that he “put a bit of vision on the root.” His root sculptures also evoke associations with the famous black conjure root, John the Conqueror, said to have talismanic and magical properties.
“I feel just like the astronauts exploring up there [on Poplar Root Branch stream]: I just want to see what I can find in these roots and things.” –Ralph Griffin
Griffin’s Noah’s Ark (ca. 1980), his most important wood assemblage, is based on the biblical account of Noah, who is instructed by God to build an ark for his family and a sampling of all the world’s creatures prior to the deluge. Griffin’s extraordinary conception of the Genesis story appears to conflate the blue waters of the flood, the white sky, the blood red of the flesh destroyed in the deluge, and the black mountain where the ark came to rest in one abstracted, boat-shaped form. For Griffin, the apocalyptic associations of Noah’s ark may have foreshadowed the equally cataclysmic slave ships that carried their human cargo across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to America.
Joe Light (1934—2005) | 5 works
The redemptive messages of Light’s art were shaped by a delinquent adolescence, two prison terms, and a religious conversion in which he found spiritual guidance in traditional Jewish teachings. Light drew inspiration for his art from the Old Testament, and saw himself as a modern-day Moses exhorting viewers to adhere to moral standards of conduct in order to achieve spiritual salvation. Around 1975 he began painting both sacred and profane images to critique hypocrisy and injustice, but also to cultivate understanding and truth, exhibiting them publicly on and around his house in Memphis, Tennessee.
“I think I have the answers to a lot of things from my experience. I work at trying now to just better my life. . . Everything is to the light.” –Joe Light
Light’s oil painting Dawn (1988) appears at first glance to be an indecipherable jumble of the calligraphic forms that the artist termed “Abraham’s writing,” after the biblical patriarch. Closer examination reveals the inverted and reversed phrase God of Israel, a personal declaration of devotion and a public proclamation of the path to spiritual salvation. The painting illustrates the Exodus story of the Israelites who flee slavery in Egypt for freedom in Canaan. Pursued by the Egyptian pharaoh and his army, Moses parts the Red Sea with his staff, enabling his people to cross on the dry land (symbolized by the flowers), while walls of blue water tower over him on either side.
Joe Minter (b. 1943) | 2 works
Minter’s service in the U.S. Army combined with later jobs in metalworking, auto mechanics, and construction, proved ideal for his work as an artist, which he commenced in 1979. Minter’s yard in Birmingham, Alabama, which he calls the “African Village in America,” seeks to restore communal culture and pride, and is the most famous “yard show” in the American South. This outdoor museum tells the rich history of Africans and African Americans, with representations of African warriors, slave ships, segregated buses, Martin Luther King’s Birmingham jail cell, and grave markers for the four young girls killed in the 1963 bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham (then known as “Bombingham”).
“The way you make an African a slave, you make him invisible. I’m making the African visible.” –Joe Minter
Minter’s welded metal sculpture Camel at the Water Hole (1995) is one of his “message pieces,” which are related to his “African Village in America,” but also serve as autonomous statements about African American history. Created from pick axes and shovels, this abstracted construction critiques the exploitative history of slavery and Jim Crow racism, which treated African American workers as “beasts of burden” akin to camels. As Minter notes, “My African ancestors built America on the sweat of their backs, in their blood, in their life—free slave labor—and the only pay is death.” Pick axes and shovels like those in the sculpture could once have been used to dig graves in the cemetery immediately adjacent to Minter’s house.
Visiting | de Young
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About the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, oversee the de Young, located in Golden Gate Park, and the Legion of Honor, in Lincoln Park. It is the largest public arts institution in San Francisco, and one of the most visited arts institutions in the United States.
The de Young originated from the 1894 California Midwinter International Exposition in Golden Gate Park and was established as the Memorial Museum in 1895. It was later renamed in honor of Michael H. de Young, who spearheaded its creation. The present copper-clad landmark building, designed by Herzog and de Meuron, opened in October 2005. It holds the institution’s significant collections of American painting, sculpture, and decorative arts from the 17th to the 21st centuries; art from Africa, Oceania, and the Americas; costume and textile arts; and international modern and contemporary art.
The Legion of Honor was inspired by the French pavilion at San Francisco’s Panama-Pacific International Exposition of 1915 and, like that structure, was modeled after the neoclassical Palais de la Légion d’Honneur, in Paris. The museum, designed by George Applegarth, opened in 1924 on a bluff in Lincoln Park overlooking the Golden Gate. Its holdings span 4,000 years and include European painting, sculpture, and decorative arts; ancient art from the Mediterranean basin; and the largest collection of works on paper in the American West.
About Souls Grown Deep Foundation
Souls Grown Deep Foundation is the only non-profit organization dedicated to documenting, preserving, exhibiting and promoting the work of contemporary African American artists from the American South. A vital resource for this genre, the Foundation’s holdings are extensive, with works by more than 160 artists—among them Thornton Dial, Lonnie Holley, Joe Minter, Purvis Young, Ronald Lockett, Mary T. Smith, Joe Light, and the quilt makers of Gee’s Bend. Through reinserting them into the narrative of artistic production in America, the Foundation aims to readjust the canon of contemporary American art history to better reflect the nuanced, polemic, and diverse experience of America.
Souls Grown Deep Foundation was founded in 2010, but traces its roots to the mid-1980s, when William S. Arnett, an art historian, scholar and patron, began to collect the artworks of previously undiscovered self-taught African American artists across nine southeastern states. Artworks today in the collection of Souls Grown Deep Foundation have been the basis of groundbreaking exhibitions, publications, using its extensive holdings, which include over 1,200 artworks as well as a collection of archival photographs, videos, and documents related to the artists in the collection. Ranging from large-scale sculptural works to works on paper, the objects in the collection often shed light on key moments in American history such as the Jim Crow era, the Civil Rights movement, and the election of the country’s first African American president.
In 2014, Souls Grown Deep Foundation began a multi-year program to transfer the majority of works in its care to the permanent collections of leading American and international art museums to establish these artists’ fundamental contribution to the narrative of American art history, through exhibitions, scholarship, publications, and programming.